## Introduction

In mathematics, the median of a set of numbers is the middle value when the numbers are arranged in order. It is a measure of central tendency that helps to understand the distribution of the data.

## Definition of Median

The median is calculated by arranging the numbers in numerical order and finding the middle value. If the set has an odd number of values, the median is the middle number. If the set has an even number of values, the median is the average of the two middle numbers.

## Example

Consider the set of numbers: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25. The median is 15 because it is the middle value. If we add another number to the set: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30. The median is now (15 + 20) / 2 = 17.5.

## Case Study

In a survey of salaries in a company, the median salary is $50,000. This means that half of the employees earn less than $50,000, and half earn more. The median is a better measure of central tendency than the mean when dealing with skewed data or outliers.

## Statistics

In a study on household income, the median income was found to be $60,000. This indicates that half of the households earn less than $60,000, and half earn more. It is a useful statistic for understanding the income distribution in a population.