Understanding Power Factor Class 12

Learn about power factor in Class 12 physics, its importance, examples, case studies, and statistics. Understand how power factor impacts energy efficiency and costs.


In Class 12 physics, one of the key concepts that students come across is power factor. It plays a crucial role in electrical engineering and understanding it is essential for a strong foundation in the subject.

What is Power Factor?

Power factor is a measure of how effectively electrical power is being used in a circuit. It is the ratio of real power to apparent power in an AC circuit and is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. A higher power factor indicates a more efficient use of electrical power.

Importance of Power Factor

A poor power factor can lead to increased electricity costs, overheating of equipment, and inefficient use of energy resources. It is crucial for industries to maintain a high power factor to avoid penalties from utility companies.

Examples of Power Factor

  • Example 1: A motor operating with a power factor of 0.7 will draw more current than a motor operating at a power factor of 0.9 for the same amount of power output.
  • Example 2: A capacitor connected to a circuit can improve the power factor by supplying reactive power, reducing the overall current drawn from the source.

Case Studies

One famous case study is that of a manufacturing plant that managed to reduce its power factor from 0.75 to 0.95 by installing power factor correction equipment. This resulted in significant savings on their electricity bills and increased efficiency in their operations.

Statistics on Power Factor

According to a study conducted by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority, industries with a high power factor have been able to save up to 20% on their electricity costs compared to those with a lower power factor.


Understanding power factor is essential for students studying Class 12 physics as well as professionals working in the field of electrical engineering. It can help in optimizing energy usage, reducing costs, and improving the efficiency of electrical systems.

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