What is Ecosystem

Learn about ecosystems, the living organisms interacting with each other and their environment. Discover the importance of preserving ecosystems for a sustainable future.


An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their physical environment. It can be as small as a pond or as large as a rainforest, but all ecosystems share the same basic characteristics.

Components of an Ecosystem

  • Abiotic factors – non-living parts of an ecosystem such as sunlight, temperature, water, and soil.
  • Biotic factors – living organisms within an ecosystem including plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Types of Ecosystems

Ecosystems can be classified into terrestrial (land-based) and aquatic (water-based) ecosystems. Examples include forests, grasslands, wetlands, lakes, rivers, and oceans.

Importance of Ecosystems

Ecosystems provide essential services to humans and the environment, such as regulating climate, purifying water, pollinating crops, and providing food and resources.

Case Study: Amazon Rainforest

The Amazon rainforest is one of the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth, with millions of plant and animal species. Deforestation threatens this ecosystem, leading to loss of biodiversity and habitat for indigenous communities.


According to the World Wildlife Fund, 18.7 million acres of forest are lost annually, equivalent to 27 soccer fields every minute. This deforestation contributes to climate change and loss of biodiversity.

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